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DNA Testing Ireland: FAQ’S

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-  What is DNA?
-  How does the test work?
-  Does taking a sample hurt?
-  How long will the results take?
-  What if I need them faster?
-  Will you give the results to anyone besides the person who orders the test?
-  How accurate is the test?
-  Who carries out the tests?
-  Who will have access to my results?
-  What does the Home Paternity Test Kit entail?
-  What does the test kit contain?
-  What can you tell from the test?
-  What happens to the DNA once the test is carried out?
-  Why do you need to know the ethnic group?
-  What happens if I want to take my results to court?
-  DNA Tests in Ireland?
-  How do I Pay?
-  Is the test confidential?
-  Is Oral Swab testing any more accurate than Blood testing?
-  How Old does a child have to be to be DNA Tested?
-  Results Interpretation?
   -  What does “NOT EXCLUDED as the biological father” mean?
   -  What does “EXCLUDED as the biological father” mean?
   -  What does the “PROBABILITY OF PATERNITY” mean?
-  How is the test done?
-  What is paternity index (PI)?
-  What is combined paternity index (CPI)?

What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a chemical substance found in the nucleus of cells. Its function is to make copies of itself so that dividing cells can pass on the same information. DNA stores information that is needed for passing down faithfully our genetic attributes from one generation to the other hence it is also known as our genetic blueprint. Half of each person's DNA information comes from the father and the other half from the mother.

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How does the test work: DNA Testing Ireland?
Samples are taken from the child, mother and father using a paternity test kit and are sent to our laboratory. DNA from each individual sample is extracted. Specific regions of the DNA are copied using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR). The product of the PCR is separated and detected to obtain a DNA profile. One-half of each person's DNA information comes from the father and the other half from the mother. The test looks out for similarity between the DNA profiles of the child, mother and father. By comparing the DNA profiles of the child with the mother, it is possible to establish the common factors between them. The child's factors not found in the mothers profile must therefore come from the biological father. An alleged father is excluded as the biological father if factors found on his DNA profile are not shared with the child's. However if the alleged father's profile contains that of the child's factors then, he is not excluded as the true biological father. A statistical analysis is then carried out to calculate the probability of paternity.

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Does taking a sample hurt?
No, the sample is taken by a non-intrusive method. The paternity test kit contains cotton swabs which are rubbed over the inside of the cheek, to remove some cells containing DNA.

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How long will the results take?
From the time we receive your samples in our laboratory, we will process them as quickly as possible. You should expect to receive your results in 3-5 days for standard paternity tests.

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What if I need them faster?
We do offer an express service, which will have your results returned to you within 24-48 hours of us receiving the samples.

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Will you give the results to anyone besides the person who orders the test?
No, we pride ourselves on our confidentiality and will never give your test results to anyone other than the person ordering the test.

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How accurate is the test?
A DNA test is the most accurate genetic identification test available. It is very accurate. However care must be taken not to contaminate the samples.

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DNA Testing Ireland : Who carries out the tests?
All DNA tests in Ireland are conducted outside the state. Based in the United Kingdom our partner laboratory employees a team of fully qualified scientists and holds full UKAS accreditation to carry out DNA testing. The UKAS application ensures that the lab adheres to the strictest procedures in dealing with your sample. Any DNA tests in Ireland undertaken by Ormond Quay Paternity Services are carried out in accordance with UKAS accreditation guidelines.

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Who will have access to my results?
Except the one reporting the results, no one will have access to your results. Access to the laboratory where the tests are performed is restricted.

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What does the test entail?
The test is very simple. It will involve following:
- Collecting cheek cells from your mouth using the cotton swabs.
- Sending the Paternity Test kit back to the laboratory for processing.
- Generating and sending to you a report after the test is completed.
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What does the Home Paternity Test Kit contain?
The test will either exclude a putative father as the biological father or it will include a putative father as the true biological father. A statistical analysis will be provided to support this claim if the alleged father is included. Please note that if the DNA test is being conducted for use in a court of law, you should specifically request a court admissible test.

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What can you tell from the test?
The test will either exclude a putative father as the biological father or it will include a putative father as the true biological father. A statistical analysis will be provided to support this claim if the alleged father is included.

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What happens to the DNA once the test is carried out?
All DNA testing in Ireland undertaken by Ormond Quay Paternity Services follow strict guidelines whereby the extracted DNA is destroyed by incineration one month after the report is sent to you.

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Why do you need to know the ethnic group?
The random match probability of the genetic markers used for the test varies among different ethnic groups. Therefore to calculate the probability of paternity accurately it is important to know the ethnic group of the individuals being tested.

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What happens if I want to take my results to court?
You will have to take a court-admissible test. In order for DNA testing in Ireland to be court admissible. The DNA test must be collected by a qualified Doctor. Contact us for more details.

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DNA Tests in Ireland?
The status of Children act states that children are the offspring of their mothers husband unless it is proved that they are not. However not all parents are married and there can be a requirement to prove paternity. If an unmarried mother names a man as the father of her child on the birth certificate, she can then attempt to claim maintenance from him in the family law courts.

Alternatively a man who considers himself to be the father of a child may find that the mother is unwilling to let him access the child, particularly if there has been a break down in communication between the parties.

It is in these incidences that DNA testing in Ireland is performed. Until recently relatively few DNA Tests in Ireland were being performed. However in the last five years there has been a huge upsurge in the number of DNA tests in Ireland. Top

How do I Pay?
Payment can be made by Credit/Laser Card, Cheque, Bankers Draft, Bank Transfer, or in Cash from our offices directly.

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Is the test confidential?
Confidentiality is the top priority for OQPS, all our dealing with clients are in complete confidence. You can rest assured that your personal information will not be distributed to any other parties.

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Is Oral Swab testing any more accurate than Blood testing?
A persons DNA is individually unique, and is contained in every single cell in the human body. Oral swab testing works by collecting cheeks cell DNA. Blood DNA testing is conducted by examining DNA extracted from blood. The DNA taken from both sources is absolutely identical, because of this neither oral swab or blood testing is more accurate then the other as both will give the same result. The principal advantage of oral swab testing and the reason for its popularity is that it allows for non-invasive and painless collection of DNA.

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How Old does a child have to be to be DNA Tested?
You inherit your unique genetic profile at conception. A child no matter how old he or she is can be DNA tested at any time. If required you can undergo prenatal (hyperlink to Prenatal DNA testing) DNA testing between the 11th and 18th weeks of pregnancy, however this must be carried out under the supervision of an obstetrician.

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Results Interpretation
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What does “NOT EXCLUDED as the biological father” mean?
It means that the tested man (alleged father) has the DNA profile (bands) expected of the biological father. Hence the result is consistent with the fact that the tested man (alleged father) is the biological father of the child. The accuracy of this test is printed on the test results. The result has an accuracy level of in excess of 99.99% so you can have full confidence in the validity of the test.

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What does “EXCLUDED as the biological father” mean?
It means that the tested man does not have the expected profile required to be the biological father. He is therefore not the biological father of the child. This result has an accuracy of far in excess of 99.99% so you can have full confidence in the result.

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What does the “PROBABILITY OF PATERNITY” mean?
This is the percentage likelihood that a man with the genetic markers (alleles) of the alleged father is the biological father of the child as compared to an untested and unrelated man of the same ethnic origin. The probability of an excluded man that he is the father of a child is 99.99% this is in other words a probability of paternity of 99.99 out of 100. So consequently the margin of error is minuscule. The reason the result is reported as 99.99% is because there is the remotest of possibilities that somebody else in the world has the exact same DNA as you, and is the father of the child. However the chances of this are beyond minuscule. A probability of paternity of 99.99% effectively means that beyond reasonable doubt you are the father of the child save for a set of very exceptional circumstances.

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How is the test done?
The test compares fragments of highly variable DNA, called Short Tandem Repeats (STR). Through a series of chemical reactions, DNA from each individual is extracted. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR), fifteen STR markers from the different chromosomes of the individuals tested are copied. The products of PCR are separated and detected to obtain a DNA profile.

One-half of each person’s DNA information comes from their father and the other half from their mother. By comparing the DNA profiles of the child with the mother, it is possible to establish the shared STR markers between them. The child’s STR markers not found in the mother’s profile must therefore come from the biological father.

An alleged father is excluded as the biological father if STR markers found on his DNA profile are not shared with the child’s. However if the alleged father’s profile shares common STR markers with that of the child’s then he is not excluded as the true biological father. A statistical analysis is then carried out to calculate the probability of paternity.

As shown in the test results’ table, each STR marker tested is listed together with the probability of occurrence in the general population.

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What is paternity index (PI)?
The paternity index compares the likelihood that an allele that the alleged father passed to the child, to the probability that a randomly selected unrelated man of similar ethnic background could pass the allele to the child.

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What is combined paternity index (CPI)?
This is a ratio that indicates how many times more likely it is that the alleged father is the biological father than a randomly selected unrelated man of similar ethnic background. The CPI is based solely on genetic evidence and is determined by multiplying the individual PIs for each locus tested.

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